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Definition Expression Approximate expression Conditions Open-circuit voltage eriyum panikadu novel pdf free download A v = v o v i R L = ∞ {displaystyle {A{v}}=left.{frac {v{text{o}}}{v{text{i}}}}right{R{L}=infty }} ( g m r o + 1 ) R C R C + r o {displaystyle {frac {(g{m}r{text{o}}+1)R{C}}{R{C}+r{o}}}} g m R C {displaystyle g{m}R{C}} r o ≫ R C {displaystyle r{o}gg R{C}} Short-circuit current gain A i = i o i i R L = 0 {displaystyle A{i}=left.{i{text{o}} over i{text{i}}}right{R{L}=0}} r π + β r o r π + ( β + 1 ) r o {displaystyle {frac {r{pi }+beta r{o}}{r{pi }+(beta +1)r{o}}}} 1 {displaystyle 1} β chile under pinochet pdf download 1 {displaystyle beta gg 1} Input resistance R in = v i i i {displaystyle R{text{in}}={frac {v{i}}{i{i}}}} ( r o + R C ∥ R L ) r E r o + r E + R C ∥ R L β + 1 {displaystyle {frac {(r{o}+R{C}R{L})r{E}}{r{o}+r{E}+{frac {R{C}R{L}}{beta +1}}}}} r e ( ≈ 1 g m ) {displaystyle r{e}left(approx {frac {1}{g{m}}}right)} r o ≫ R C ∥ R L ( β ≫ 1 ) {displaystyle r{o}gg R{C}R{L} left(beta gg 1right)} Output resistance R out = v o − i o v s = 0 {displaystyle R{text{out}}=left.{frac {v{o}}{-i{o}}}right{v{s}=0}} R C ∥ ( [ 1 + g m ( r π ∥ R S ) ] r o + r π ∥ R S ) {displaystyle R{C}left([1+g{m}(r{pi }R{S})]r{o}+r{pi }R{S}right)} R C r o R C ( r o [ 1 + g m ( r π R S ) ] ) {displaystyle {begin{aligned}&R{C}r{o}&R{C}left(r{o}left[1+g{m}left(r{pi }R{S}right)right]right)end{aligned}}} R S ≪ r E R S ≫ r E {displaystyle {begin{aligned}R{S}&ll r{E}R{S}&gg r{E}end{aligned}}} . Figure 1: Basic NPN common base circuit (neglecting biasing details). A practical solution to this low-input-impedance problem is to place a common emitter stage at the input to form a cascode amplifier. The input signal is represented by a Thvenin voltage source, vs, with fall into darkness christopher pike pdf download series resistance Rs and the load is a resistor RL. The circuit signal is provided by an AC Norton source (current IS, Norton resistance RS) at the input, and the circuit has a resistor load RL at the output.

Notice that active load or not, large AC gain still is coupled to large AC output resistance, which marcovaldo di italo calvino pdf download to poor voltage division at the output except for large loads RL >> Rout. Basic BJT Amplifier Configurations NPN Common Base Amplifier HyperPhysics a walk to remember download novel pdf 327: Transistor Basics Gives example common base circuit (i.e., current source) with explanation. The current gain is very nearly unity as long as RS >> rE. Several example applications are described in detail below. Notice that for low source impedance, Rout = rO RC. Current follower. In this circuit the emitter terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the collector the output, and the base is connected to ground, or "common", hence its name. If IE is reduced to increase Rin, there are other consequences like lower transconductance, higher output resistance and lower that also must be considered. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) . R i n = r E = V T I E {displaystyle R{in}=r{E}={begin{matrix}{frac {V{T}}{I{E}}}end{matrix}}} , where VT is the thermal voltage and IE is the DC emitter current.